What Is Computer Hardware | Introduction | Components | Specifications



A computer system consists of hardware, software, and firmware. To build a computer, we must first gather the necessary hardware. Hardware is the part of the computer that you can touch and feel. When most people view a specific computer, they understand what physical components they are using, such as a rigid metal or plastic system unit, central processing unit (CPU), power supply, disk drive, and other essentials. Component. The hardware is limited by its manufacture date and specially installed motherboard. Depending on age and availability, some hardware items may be expensive to acquire, repair, or replace. For example, if the computer is running slowly over time with the addition of new software, it may be necessary to increase the amount of physical memory called RAM (random access memory) in the computer. To do this, the technician will need to purchase the correct size, speed and style of memory according to the motherboard specifications and install it into the computer which will then increase its ability to process information more quickly.


Computer hardware consists of mechanical and electrical parts of a computer. Data flows through the motherboard which is known as the system bus. External ports, which are discussed in more detail in this lesson, allow peripheral devices to be connected to a system unit. Common ports are USB, serial and parallel ports.

Peripheral devices contain hardware connected to the system unit and are designated as input, output, or both. Traditional input device examples are the mouse and keyboard used for input data.


Output devices include common items such as monitors, speakers, and printers. All these devices are ways that a computer user can respond through visual or auditory output.

Traditionally eccentric devices have become both input and output. Gaming joysticks that provide feedback to the user through vibration and of course touch-screen displays now function as both.



The CPU is the master of the computer. Each subsystem, including input, output, and storage systems, interacts with and through the processor. For example, the processor receives user input (such as double-clicking a mouse on the screen), then interacts with the storage device (such as a hard drive) to retrieve the file. Processing, which is the act of taking data that has been inputted and converting it into something usable. Then, the processor creates a visual display of the file by outputting it to the monitor through the output subsystem.

Some hardware performs storage. Storage functions are handled in the storage subsystem. This area focuses on the act of saving data for future use and retrieval. Early computers had very limited storage, so each program had to be entered before running it, every time you wanted to use it. In modern computers, storage space has increased rapidly; Even basic computers have hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of information storage. Computers use both short-term and long-term storage in their daily operations. For example, when you are typing a report for school, it is stored in the computer's short-term memory (RAM) while you are typing and editing the document. Once you save the document, it is transferred to a hard drive (internal) or a USB flash drive (external) for long term storage and future use.